All You Need to Know About Hinduism Hinduism is a mixture of sects, cults and doctrines which have had a profound effect on Indian culture. In Spite of this diversity, there are few of its aspects which do not rely in some way or the other on the authority of Indian religious literature — the Vedas, the Epics and the Puranas. Vedas The word Veda means knowledge. There are four Vedas dating from the earliest period of known Indian scriptures; the Rig Veda, a collection of praises in the form of hymns; the Sama Veda, also a collection of hymns; the Yajur Veda, collection of sacrificial formulas; and the Atharva Veda, a collection of charms and magic formulas. The texts were developed over a long period, possibly beginning before the Aryans arrived in India B. The texts were passed down orally, being handed on from one generation of priests to another, syllable perfect in intonation and rhythm, from memory and by rote. An error in recital led to punishment and penances; in effect, to hear a Vedic passage today is to hear the oral equivalent of a tape recording over three thousand years old.
They were transferred to Deccan College , Pune , in the late 19th century. They are in the Sharada and Devanagari scripts, written on birch bark and paper. The oldest of them is dated to
The Age of Vedas The sacred books of Buddhism, Christianity and Islam have definite historical dates assigned to them. The Tripitakas are said to have been written about the time of Asoka, though the Buddha"s date, according to some puranas, went further back by several centuries.
Scientific Verification of Vedic Knowledge: A vast number of statements and materials presented in the ancient Vedic literatures can be shown to agree with modern scientific findings and they also reveal a highly developed scientific content in these literatures. The great cultural wealth of this knowledge is highly relevant in the modern world. Techniques used to show this agreement include: Max Muller, perhaps the most well known early sanskritist and indologist, although later in life he glorified the Vedas, initially wrote that the"Vedas were worse than savage" and"India must be conquered again by education Innumerable archaeological findings and their analysis have recently brought the Aryan Invasion Theory into serious question.
This theory is still taught as fact in many educational systems despite much contrary evidence. The wealth of their culture came from foreign soil. On the one hand we have the vast Vedic Literature without any archaeological finds associated with them and on the other hand, we have 2, archaeological sites from the Indus-Sarasvata civilization without any literature associated with them. A preponderance of contemporary evidence now seems to indicate that these are one and the same cultures.
All You Need to Know About Hinduism: Vedas
Stopping Scholarly Distortion of Vedic Teachings There has been commentary by some scholars that the concept of chakras is a relatively new phenomenon within Hinduism; and there appears to be an implication that chakras were not known to the Vedic tradition. Regrettably, this appears to be part of a continuing effort to redefine Hinduism, and to imply that Dharmist do not really understand their own teachings. The word cakra appears in the Rg Veda more than 29 times.
Upanishad: Upanishad, one of four genres of texts that together constitute each of the Vedas, the sacred scriptures of most Hindu traditions. Each of the four Vedas—the Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, and Atharvaveda—consists of a Samhita (a “collection” of hymns or sacred formulas); a liturgical prose.
By Sunaina Kumar"Would you like to see how the sky looked at the beginning of the war? The war he is referring to is the one that famously lasted for 18 days, the greatest of all wars. He switches on his laptop, clicks on Stellarium, a planetarium software that simulates the sky in 3D, feeds in some data, and soon we are staring at a configuration on the screen which looks like the night sky with stars glittering on it.
This is the sky just before the Battle of Kurukshetra, according to Bhatnagar, an astronomer who has spent the years since his retirement-- as additional director general from the Positional Astronomy Centre of the Indian Meteorological Department--extracting astronomical references from the Mahabharata. By tracing the winter solstice and the autumnal equinox indicated in the text, he has found a time bracket of 1, years.
He then looked for eclipses within that period, and one by one, he says, it all fell into place. His paper on the war"s dating will be part of a book of research on the Mahabharata that I-Serve plans to bring out later this year. In support of his hypothesis, he cites research by veteran geologist KS Valdiya, author of Saraswati:
Nonetheless Vedas remain the most meticulously preserved texts available today. The unique methods devised from very inception of Vedas have ensured that Vedas are available even today in same original form. Many scholars have called this the greatest wonder of human civilization. Someone like Abdullah Tariq, the mentor of Zakir Naik and celebrated Islamic scholar, also vociferously asserts that Vedas are the first divine texts. Even Zakir Naik does not refute it, even though he does not state it so clearly owing to his Wahabi foundation.
This very act of his proves that he regards Vedas as authoritative first divine texts.
The Rigveda"s core is accepted to date to the late Bronze Age, making it one of the few examples with an unbroken tradition. Its composition is usually dated to roughly between c. – BC. The Rigveda is far more archaic than any other Indo-Aryan text.
Balakrishna Abstract Mahabharata war is considered by many to be a historical event. Article suggests some candidate dates for Mahabharata war. Introduction Mahabharata is a great epic, and is one of the pillars of present day Hinduism. The Mahabharata story and its moral ethos have had profound influence on millions over many generations. Mahabharata war is said to have occurred before the transition of Dwapara Yuga to Kali Yuga.
Dating the Mahabharata war and start of Kaliyuga has been elusive and going on for many centuries. Aryabhata, is a famous early astronomer with contributions to science, whose estimate of p, and the time of moon revolution around the earth are so accurate, that his works are being extensively researched. Aryabhata AD stated that Kaliyuga started years before, when he was 23 years old, making the start as BC [Aryabhateeya ref-1].
It would date Mahabharata war to around circa BCJ. Millennium year AD is Kali Hence, it is usual to look for Puranic and Vedic written and oral recitation astronomical evidence to substantiate the time periods. As is true of all such documents like bible stories, Scandinavian, Chinese, Japanese, Egyptian and other documented local folklore, the historical truths are likely to be anywhere between absolute truth to vivid imagination.
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How old are the Upanishads? I was introduced to them by chance nearly forty years ago, and ever since my interest in them only grew. It was out of my interest I translated several Upanishads twice in the past.
• The significance of establishing this date for the drying up of the Sarasvati River is, that it pushes the date for the composition of the Rig Veda back to approximately .
This redaction also included some additions contradicting the strict ordering scheme and orthoepic changes to the Vedic Sanskrit such as the regularization of sandhi termed orthoepische Diaskeuase by Oldenberg, As with the other Vedas, the redacted text has been handed down in several versions, most importantly the Padapatha , in which each word is isolated in pausa form and is used for just one way of memorization; and the Samhitapatha , which combines words according to the rules of sandhi the process being described in the Pratisakhya and is the memorized text used for recitation.
The Padapatha and the Pratisakhya anchor the text"s true meaning,  and the fixed text was preserved with unparalleled fidelity for more than a millennium by oral tradition alone. This interplay with sounds gave rise to a scholarly tradition of morphology and phonetics. There is a widely accepted timeframe for the initial codification of the Rigveda by compiling the hymns very late in the Rigvedic or rather in the early post-Rigvedic period, including the arrangement of the individual hymns in ten books, coeval with the composition of the younger Veda Samhitas.
This time coincides with the early Kuru kingdom, shifting the center of Vedic culture east from the Punjab into what is now Uttar Pradesh. The fixing of the samhitapatha by enforcing regular application of sandhi and of the padapatha by dissolving Sandhi out of the earlier metrical text , occurred during the later Brahmana period, in roughly the 6th century BC.
The Four Vedas
The Hindu ceremony consists of the priest or brahmin officiating. The bride and groom stand on a decorated wood plank and the priests holds a curtain between them. The bridal party stands behind the bride. The priest chants songs and guest shower rice and other grains over the couple. The wedding begins when the curtain is removed and garllands of sandlewood chips are placed around the neck of the bride and groom. The brides father gives her to the groom and then they perform an upliftment of Dharma
Apr 29, · Thus, Vedas did not undergo the changes like a spoken language, also Sanskrit did not change much over time because of the Vedas. So, the dating .
Often in corresponding hymns, the two recessions have different verse orders, or each has additional verses not in the other. Several Upanishads also are associated with the Atharva Veda, but appear to be relatively late additions to the tradition. The most important of these are the mundaka and the prasna Upanishads. The Atharva Veda is less predominant than other Vedas as it is little used in solemn Shrauta ritual.
Though an early text, its status has been ambiguous, due to its magical character. It was not found in South India during the Middle Ages, and until very recently. A special initiation of the Gayatri is required to learn the Atharva Veda. The Atharva Veda Parishishtas appendices state that priests of the Mauda and Jalada schools of the Atharvaveda should be avoided, or strict discipline should be followed as per the rules and regulations set by the Atharva Veda.
As a noun, the word appears only once in the Rigveda, in RV 8. There are four"Vedic" Samhitas: This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts, apart from the Rigvedic hymns, which were probably essentially complete by B. The complete corpus of Vedic mantras, as collected in Bloomfield"s Vedic Concordance consists of some 89, padas metric feet , of which 72, occur in the four Samhitas. Each of the Brahmanas is associated with one of the Samhitas or its recensions.
Vedas pdf. Meaning vedas and indian texts dating of the indian circles, as the brink of rigveda. Date to bce is, date the vedas. Thus, bce, sama-veda, bce, fauna and the vedas and scientific dating to hindu teachings, cambridge. Vedic hymns nos to dating of vedic texts.
Share Shares Based on his expertise on ancient documents and biblical genealogies, the Irish Archbishop James Ussher — estimated that our planet was created in the morning of October 23, BC. Bodleian Library As time goes by, two geographically isolated communities that speak the same language will display differences in the way they talk.
After a few generations, language change becomes more significant. Linguistics can date text on documents, pottery, building walls, and numerous other surfaces. Many important ancient texts have been dated on the basis of linguistic comparison, such as the Zoroastrian Avesta , which is believed to have been written somewhere between — BC based on linguistic similarities with the Indian Vedas.
By matching ring sequences from living trees of different ages, it is possible to create a long tree-ring sequence for hundreds, sometimes even thousands of years back in time. In Alchester, north of Oxford in England, the remains of a Roman fort was uncovered by archaeologists. Thanks to the soil conditions, two large timbers that supported the gate structure survived.
Dendrochronological analysis established that both trees were cut between October in the year 44 and March in the year 45, a date consistent with historical data , since the Roman conquest of Britain dates to AD Georges Jansoone Many of us can mentally arrange most human creations in a chronological sequence. Archaeologists can do the same with past artifacts.
Creations coming from a particular place and time display a distinctive style. Pottery styles seriation is the foundation of many chronological sequences. Most human cultures later than BC possess a distinctive ceramic style.
Who first translate Rig Veda in English
June 23rd, Author: Consequently the civilizations of the world naturally and simultaneously started developing near the rivers which initially started flowing due to the melting of glaciers near the Equator e. South India, Sri Lanka and Africa. When populations multiplied, these river waters became insufficient.
The Vedas are classified into four volumes: the Rig-Veda, the Sama Veda, the Yajur Veda and the Atharva Veda, with the Rig Veda serving as the principal text. The four Vedas are collectively known as “Chathurveda, ” of which the first three Vedas--Rig Veda, Sama Veda, and Yajur Veda--agree with one another in form, language and content.
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Date of the Vedas : Inquiry not Proper from the Chapter"The Vedas", in Hindu Dharma
Translations from the Katha, Prasna and Chhandogya Upanishads. Puranas The Puranas are post-Vedic texts which typically contain a complete narrative of the history of the Universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of the kings, heroes and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology and geography. There are 17 or 18 canonical Puranas, divided into three categories, each named after a deity: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.
The Vedas describe Indra as the god “Who wields the thunderbolt”, and his most celebrated story was the killing of the demon-serpent Vritra. The legend says that Vritra kept all the waters trapped in his mountain lair, and Indra was the one who slew the demon in order to release the waters.
Date of the Vedas: Inquiry not Proper HinduDharma: The Vedas The idea that the Vedas are eternal does not fit into the mental outlook of Western indologists. Their claims to impartiality and to conducting research in a scientific manner notwithstanding, they are not prepared to accord an elevated status to the Hindu texts. Many Hindu research scholars have also found themselves unable to accept the view that the Vedas are eternal. Modern historians have adopted chiefly two methods to determine the date of the Vedas: But have they, using either method, come to any definite conclusion?
Each investigator has arrived at a different age. Tilak has assigned the date B. C to the Vedas. According to some others it is B. C or B. There is no difference of opinion among historians about the dates of the scriptures of other religions. They are agreed that the Buddhist Tripitaka was written during the time of Asoka but that the teachings of the Buddha included in it belong to an earlier time.